Turkish originates from the Ural-Altaic languages and is structured like Hungarian and Finnish; root syllables have another root syllable attached to them. At the same time as the other reforms in Turkey, the Arabic alphabet was replaced by the Latin alphabet (1st Nov.1928). Since 1932 language reform has been in progress introducing Turkish words in lieu of their Arab, Persian and French synonyms. Turkish has been written in a phonetic, Latin alphabet of twenty-nine letters.

With only few variation, the pronunciation is like English. However, each letter represents only one sound. The vowel soundsare the a of father; the e of edit;the i (without point), of the unaccented e of the;the i, the ee of feet; the o of so,the ö, of the German word schön; the u,the u of pool ; and the ü the Germangrün. Consonants that differ are the c pronounced as the j of Jack, the ç as ch, theg with a small line above it which is silent g and usually lengthens the previous vowel, the j as the gof gendarme and the s(with point) as sh. Syllables within a word are only lightly accented, if at all. All letters are pronounced. Thus Side (a port on the Mediterranean) has two syllable.

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