At 334 B.C. when Alexander the Great freed Anatolia from Persians by defeating the Persian King at Issos, Ephesus, Magnesia, Assos, Bergama, Tralleis, Miletos and Didyma became most dominant cities on the history of civilization once more. The Hellenistic age Ionian cities became a role model to new coming age of Roman era. A large number of Hellenistic Age Ionian art pieces are exhibited at various Turkish museums.

Romans contributed to the architecture of Anatolia to a very great extend. They used mortar to lay the bricks in the building. This way, very large volume buildings, bridges, archs, arcades and domes were constructed throughout the country. Roma and Anatolia became the showpieces of this new architectural technique in a very short period of time. Western, southern and even central Anatolia are covered with well architectured cities, stone and marble covered roads, theaters, agoras, stadiums, gymnasiums, baths and fountains.

Especially during the 2. century A.D. Anatolia became one of the most rich and developed countries of the time. A large number of Roman era ruins and ancient cities are still standing spectacularly intact today.

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