By 1750 B.C., Hittites took control of a large part of Anatolia and set their first Kingdom at Nesa near Kultepe in central Anatolia. The old city of Bogazkoy was declared the capital of the Kingdom and the name of the city was changed to Hatusa. Hattusili became the first king of the Hittites.

It took only 200 years before this first Kingdom turned out to be a large central authority in the form of a federated Great Kingdom. In this period many great structures were built, such as the rock sanctuary "Yazilikaya". During the reign of King Muvatalli the empire expanded; the Hittites and Egyptians became neighbours. The dispute about the strategically important city of Kadesh created a problem between the two countries. The war became inevitable. Hittites used chariots (3500 of them) against the Egyptian army, for the first time in the history of wars. The Egyptians lost the war. The famous Kadesh Treaty was signed between Hattusili IV and Ramses II; the treaty is the first written treaty between countries in the history of mankind and a copy of the document in the Hittite language is on exhibition at the Istanbul Archeology Museum today.

Hittites used cuneiform script on their inscriptions. Also they used the hieroglyph form on some inscription, intended for ordinary people to understand the contents easily.

They were influenced by Hatti civilization to a great extend in religion, mythology, art and culture. Although Hittites were the rulers of the country, their kings adopted Hatti names.

Throughout the history, Hittites formed the first society in human history by creating a legal system which recognized the human rights and more importantly recognition of women's social rights and importance in the social fabric.

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