MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATIONS


Liman Tepe


Remains and Finds

A 'gray minyan' bowl, Late Bronze Age Head of terracota Mycenaean goddess, Late Bronze Age A well belonging to the first cultural layer of Liman Tepe dating to the late Bronze Age is important for its wealth of finds. Painted vessels found in this well represent the Mycenaean culture, itself focused on the Greek mainland. Among these vessels, the head of a Mycenaean clay figurine of a goddess is one of the rare examples found in Anatolia. This head also sheds some light on the religious beliefs of the period. Again dating from this layer is a vessel inscribed with Aegean Apsidal house, Middle Bronze Age A jar with decoration, Middle Bronze Age characters which is important for the cultural history of the period. "Gray Minyan" ware is an important group among the Late Bronze Age pottery at Liman Tepe.

The apsidal houses belonging to the fourth phase of the second cultural layer representing the Middle Bronze Age surround a stone paved square. At this level a lot of wood was used as construction material. As organic materials deteriorate under the ground, the plans of buildings are determined with great difficulty. The workplace area belonging to this layer revealed numerous ovens and hearths. The metal moulds, and lead rings thought to be a form of currency found along with Small jugs, Middle Bronze Age Architectural remain, Early Bronze Age these ovens and hearths demonstrate an advanced metal technology and economic organisation. The pottery uncovered, shows variety in form. Terracota examples in the form of animals also exist.

The second phase of the third cultural layer rcpresenting the Early Bronze Age reflects a true example of urbanism. Long narrow rooms belonging to huge building complexes have been partly excavated. Another huge structure, Magazine of the palatial structure, Early Bronze Age Storage jar, Early Bronze Age whose excavation still continues, reflects features (Plan 2.b). The stone walls of the building are more than one meter thick and are of an advanced construction technique. A massive metal find testifies the advanced stage of metallurgy at this level.

Excavations undertaken at the south of the Izmir - Cesmealti road, which divides Liman Tepe into two, revealed a monumental city wall belonging to, the third cultural layer, dating from the Early Bronze Age (Plan 2.e). The City wall and the bastion, Early Bronze Ageconstruction technique of this wall testifies the existence of an important settlement at Liman Tepe. The preserved height of the wall is 6 metres; though its lower extent was not yet determined. This defense system, with its horse-shoe shaped bastions extending in an east west direction protects the headland from the south, i.e. from the landward direction (Plan 2.e). Some architectural remains reveal the continuation of the settlement outside the walls.


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