Goreme was an important settlement even before the Christian era. The people of the town were living in these carved rock houses. Some of these houses were converted into the churches later.
Some of the rock structures were used as burial ground. You can see one of them when you are entering the town, in the form of a rock pinnacle which contains a mortuary chapel with a small facade.
The El Nazar valley which is 3km. to the east of Goreme, where the fairy chimneys house some early era Christian churches. The Church of Kiliclar and the Church of Madonna are two of the most important ones.